McCarville, M. T., M. O’Neal, G. L. Tylka, C. Kanobe, and G. C. MacIntosh. Third, failure to use proper scouting methods and established thresholds for the determination of when to apply insecticides can result in aphids being exposed to insecticides more frequently than necessary. 2016) and biotypes of soybean aphid able to survive on some aphid-resistant soybean have been identified (Hesler et al. Insecticides from three insecticide groups are available in foliar formulations for soybean aphid management (IRAC 2018, Knodel et al. Furthermore, depending on factors such as relative efficacy, durations of residual activity, and levels of cross resistance, use of some mixtures could provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance (IRAC 2012). As more is learned about the genetics and mechanisms underlying soybean aphid resistance to insecticides, recommendations for resistance management are likely to change. From 2015 to 2016, soybean aphid populations from Minnesota and Iowa exhibited resistance ratios up to 40-fold for pyrethroids (i.e., bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) (Hanson et al. publication E-1143, North Dakota State University Extension Service, Reaping benefits from an invasive species: role of, Non-target impacts of soybean rust fungicides on the fungal entomopathogens of soybean aphid, Biology and economics of recommendations for insecticide-based management of soybean aphid, Management of insecticide-resistant soybean aphids. Alves, T. M., I. V. MacRae, and R. L. Koch. Safer Brand 5118 Insect Killing Soap – 16-Ounce Concentrate. Resistance can be defined as a ‘genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide’ and more than 500 species of arthropods have developed resistance to insecticides (Tabashnik et al. This pattern of greater pest pressure in Minnesota and neighboring states is further evidenced by data from NASS (2018). This knowledge could contribute to rationalize application of insecticides and to optimize Integrated Pest Management in soybean. Ohnesorg, W. J., K. D. Johnson, and M. E. O’Neal. 2016). Table 1 lists insecticide groups and active ingredients available for soybean aphid management. Aphis glycines mainly colonized the soybean stem while A. solani prefers the foliage. 2018). 2011, 2012). If insecticide resistance is not suspected in the aphid population, then the choice of insecticide could include the various labeled products (Table 1, Fig. 2008; Shuai & Wang 2005). Title: Microsoft Word - Insecticide_Selection_Sugarcane_Aphid_2015.docx Created Date: 6/23/2015 8:08:16 PM Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Harlequin bugs, stink bugs, flea beetles and … 2014). 2). These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the … Improvements in the efficiency of soybean aphid scouting, such as the potential for remote sensing (Alves et al. As a synthetic pyrethroid, Zeta-Cypermethrin is a contact insecticide which provides quick results for … The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin drove A. solani migrating from soybean leaves to stems independently of interspecific competition. Monitor the trees for mites when the weather is hot and dry and after … In particular, the area of southwest Minnesota (i.e., Blue Earth, Brown, Cottonwood, Faribault, Martin, Redwood, Renville, and Watonwan counties) from which pyrethroid performance issues were first reported (Hanson et al. 2017). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America. Aphis glycines facilitated A. solani colonization on soybean plant through impacting host susceptibility, and vice versa. In fields where pyrethroids failed to control soybean aphid, surviving (i.e., suspected resistant) aphids have sometimes been observed in patches within the field, which may be due to a mixture of aphid genotypes (e.g., Orantes et al. Bahlai, C. A., Y. Xue, C. M. McCreary, A. W. Schaafsma, and R. H. Hallett. Over recent years, the percentage of soybean acres that have been treated with insecticides, not including seed treatments, has been highest in Minnesota, followed by Iowa and North Dakota compared to other states in the Midwest Region (Fig. If fields were planted with neonicotinoid-treated seed, avoid application of neonicotinoid-containing products (e.g., options D and E) for the first foliar application to the field. The most popular among gardeners means to control aphids on apple trees are the following drugs: Kinmiks is an insecticide that contains the main active ingredient beta-cypermethrin (from the group of pyrethroids, it is produced artificially), it affects both adult aphids … Insecticide use (i.e., percent of planted acres treated with insecticide) (top figure) and crop scouting for insects and mites (i.e., percent of planted acres scouted) (bottom figure) in soybean in the Midwestern Region of the United States. To reduce the selection pressure for development of resistance to insecticides, treat fields only when necessary (Fig. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, Striped cucumber Beetle and Western Striped Cucumber Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Invasion Biology and Management of Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China, Overview of Pest Status, Potential Risk, and Management Considerations of, An Overview of the Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as a Pest of Greenhouse Peppers, Biology and Management of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California, About Journal of Integrated Pest Management, About the Entomological Society of America, Risk Factors for Resistance Development in Soybean Aphid, Strategies for Management of Insecticide-Resistant Soybean Aphid, http://apps.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/soybean/pest/soybean-aphid/aphid-resistant-soybean/, http://www.irac-online.org/documents/principles-of-irm/?ext=pdf, http://www.irac-online.org/content/uploads/irac_mixture_statement_v1.0_10sept12.pdf, http://www.irac-online.org/documents/moa-classification/, www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/e1143.pdf, http://works.bepress.com/matthew_oneal/37, https://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Chemical_Use/, http://igrow.org/up/resources/03-3042-2017.pdf, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, 4. Aphis glycines showed higher fecundity than A. solani on soybean and the aphids caused unbalanced reduction in population growth on each other. Insecticide resistance in soybean aphid has emerged as a new challenge to soybean production. This work was supported in part by the Minnesota Soybean Research and Promotion Council, Iowa Soybean Association, North Dakota Soybean Council, and South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council. Moreover, the two species showed different spatial distribution on soybean seedlings. 3). 2012), which has increased selection pressure for these particular groups. A sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin (LC5 for A. glycines) stimulated the reproduction of A. glycines but it did not impact the fecundity of A. solani. The continued validity of the 250-aphid-per-plant threshold is explained by Koch et al. Updated February 9, 2017 Economic Threshold: The recommended threshold for late vegetative through R5 stage soybeans is 250 aphids per plant (field average) with 80% of the plants infested and … Koch, R., E. Hodgson, J. Knodel, and A. Varenhorst. Soybean aphid has been actively managed since 2000, because of the potential for severe economic impact. Foster, S. P., G. Devine, and A. L. Devonshire. Xi, J., Y. Pan, R. Bi, X. Gao, X. Chen, T. Peng, M. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and Q. Shang. Beta-cypermethrin is classified as a toxicity class II (pyrethroid) insecticide, and it represents one of the main options for controlling aphids on cereals in China (Zhang et al. However, availability of well-adapted, aphid-resistant soybean varieties remains low (McCarville et al. South Dakota State University Extension, Research on resistance of soybean aphid (, The soybean aphid in China: a historical review, Elevated expression of esterase and cytochrome P450 are related with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and lead to cross resistance in, Spray toxicity and risk potential of 42 commonly used formulations of row crop pesticides to adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). If a field needs to be retreated, alternate to a different insecticide group for the follow-up application (NRC 1986, IRAC 2009) (Fig. If a soybean field exceeds the economic threshold, use an effective insecticide at a labeled rate (IRAC 2009) (Fig. In response to the challenge posed by insecticide-resistant soybean aphids, we recommend several management strategies for minimizing further development of resistance and subsequent pest-induced crop losses: 1) scout and use the economic threshold to determine when to apply insecticides, 2) apply the insecticides properly, 3) assess efficacy 3–5 d after application, and 4) alternate to a different insecticide group if another application is required. 2004, Wu et al. For example, if a field was treated with a pyrethroid (Group 3A) and a follow-up insecticide application is needed, then an insecticide from different insecticide group, such as an organophosphate (Group 1B), should be selected. Several factors related to soybean aphid infestations and management likely contributed to the development of pyrethroid resistance in this pest in the Upper Midwest of the United States. These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the sublethal concentration of LC5), and that it could influence aphid population growth and community structure in soybean crops. Add this to the spray tank while agitating the mixture. 2016). Zhu, Y.C., J. Adamczyk, T. Rinderer, J. Yao, R. Danka, R. Luttrell, and J. Gore. In the short term, however, cost-effective management of soybean aphid will continue to rely on scouting and threshold-based insecticide applications of the few labeled insecticide groups (Table 1, Fig. Beckendorf, E. A., M. A. Catangui, and W. E. Riedell. 2015). Yards which develop pests like aphids … Insecticide … Krupke, C. H., A. M.Alford, E. M.Cullen, E. W.Hodgson, J. J.Knodel, B.McCornack, B. D.Potter, M. I.Spigler, K.Tilmon, and K. Welch. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties have proven effective for soybean aphid management, particularly when multiple resistance (Rag) genes are pyramided in individual lines (Hesler et al. When selecting insecticides, keep in mind that the ‘the primary intention for the use of an insecticide mixture (tank-mix or pre-formulated mixture) is, in most cases, not resistance management but pest management’ (IRAC 2012). 2004). In such situations, the pyrethroid component of such products may be compromised by the resistance. (2018). Use the economic threshold (i.e., 250 aphids per plant with more than 80% of plants infested and aphid populations increasing) to determine if insecticides should be applied (Ragsdale et al. The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin accelerated the reproductive inhibition. Red-shaded counties indicate those from which reports of pyrethroid failures were received. Frewin, A. J., A. W. Schaafsma, and R. H. Hallett. Koch, K., B. D. Potter and D. W. Ragsdale. Aphis glycines and A. solani facilitated each other's colonization on the soybean. 2011, Tilmon et al. © The Author(s) 2018. Koch, R. L., B. D. Potter, P. A. Glogoza, E. W. Hodgson, C. H. Krupke, J. F. Tooker, C. D. DiFonzo, A. P. Michel, K. J. Tilmon, T. J. Prochaska, et al. 2001) and potential facilitation of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, infestations (McCarville et al. Image from Koch et al. Bahlai, C. A., W. van der Werf, M. O’Neal, L. Hemerik, and D. A. Landis. States included had data available for the three survey years. 3Insecticides are given as examples only and do not imply endorsement of one insecticide versus another nor discrimination against any insecticide not mentioned by the authors or the universities. Publication IPM 0060, North Central Soybean Research Program, Ankeny, IA, Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in soybean, Field validation of speed scouting for soybean aphid, Management recommendations for soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States, Value of neonicotinoid seed treatments to US soybean farmers, Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC), General Principles of Insecticide Resistance Management from IRAC, IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement, IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme, 2018 field crop insect management guide. Aphids from these three populations were less sensitive to alpha-cypermethrin compared with KAT (Figure 3). Biological Control Methods: Parasitic wasps (small wasps that are harmless to humans) are the best for killing aphids. Hill, J. H., R. Alleman, D. B. Hogg, and C. R. Grau. To minimize drift, which could result in an effectively reduced rate of insecticide in the field, only spray under favorable environmental conditions (e.g., wind speeds less than 10 miles per hour, no air temperature inversions). It can be used Implementation of user-friendly scouting tools and other management tactics may decrease unnecessary exposure of the pest to insecticides and, in turn, reduce further development of insecticide resistance. and B.D.P., unpublished data). 2According to Insecticide Resistance Action Committtee (IRAC 2018). In the present study, we evaluated the impact of the insecticide beta-cypermethrin on interspecific interactions between the specialist aphid Aphis glycines and the generalist aphid Aulacorthum solani on soybean. zeta-cypermethrin) 5.0 to 11.75 fl oz : Tombstone [3] (cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.028 to 0.038 fl oz/A) Greenbug: Planting Time : Lime-green aphid with darker green stripe down back. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Zeta-Cypermethrin. Nevertheless, such facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be modulated through exposure to the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin. In response to the challenge posed by insecticide-resistant soybean aphid, we recommend several management strategies for minimizing further development of resistance and subsequent pest-induced crop losses. Second, as indicated earlier, there are a limited number of insecticide groups available for soybean aphid management (Table 1). However, pyrethroid-containing mixtures should generally be avoided for use against pyrethroid-resistant populations (IRAC 2012) (Fig. 2012, Krupke et al. Economically significant infestation of soybean by this phloem-feeding insect can reduce soybean yield by up to 40% (Ragsdale et al. In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management toward true integrated pest management incorporating multiple, proactive tactics. Measure out the required quantity of CYPERMETHRIN 200 EC and premix this with at least 10 litres of water. 2004, Hodgson et al. However, the LC 5 of beta-cypermethrin enhanced the interspecific inhibition of fecundity between the two aphid … Upon reaching threshold, treat the field within 5–7 d to protect yield (Ragsdale et al. In China, laboratory experiments exposing soybean aphid to lambda-cyhalothrin for 40 generations resulted in the development of 76-fold resistance to that insecticide and cross resistance to other pyrethroids (i.e., cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin), organophosphates (i.e., chlorpyrifos and acephate), and a carbamate (i.e., carbofuran) (Xi et al. From vegetative growth through the R5 soybean growth stage, soybean fields should be scouted for soybean aphids on a regular schedule (every 7–10 d) (Hodgson et al. Although multiple pest management tactics are available, such as host-plant resistance and biological control, current management continues to rely almost exclusively on foliar insecticides (Hodgson et al. We are unaware of reports of neonicotinoids failing to control soybean aphid in the field. Beta-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, has a broad insecticide spectrum and is considered effective for aphid control, while its residual concentrations may have sublethal effects … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 2007). Publication E1878, Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (, Pyrethroid resistance in insects: genes, mechanisms, and regulation, Insecticides: advances in integrated pest management, Soybean aphid-resistant soybean varieties for Iowa. Hanson, A. 2016), have been evaluated for soybean aphid management, and could potentially provide for better integration of chemical and biological controls for this pest. It is used in the UK to control a range of pests in both arable and livestock farming, in homes and gardens, and in public and commercial buildings. It is used to control chewing, sucking, and flying insects such as beetles, aphids, and other Lepidoptera. A., S. J. Bhusal, A. Lorenz, and R. L. Koch. Counties with reports of pyrethroids failing to control soybean aphid in the field in 2017. These authors contributed equally to this work. Literature from Asia indicates ‘light’ levels of field-evolved resistance of soybean aphid to organophosphates (Wang et al. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), continues to be the most significant insect pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in the Upper Midwest of the United States (Hurley and Mitchell 2017). Search for other works by this author on: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Science II, Ames, IA, Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Walster Hall, Fargo, ND, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Berg Agricultural Hall, Brookings, SD, Southwest Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota Extension, Lamberton, MN, Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) affects soybean spectral reflectance, Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans, Shifts in dynamic regime of an invasive lady beetle are linked to the invasion and insecticidal management of its prey, Soybean aphid feeding injury and soybean yield, yield components, and seed composition, An aphid-dip bioassay to evaluate susceptibility of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and neonicotinoid insecticides, Interactions of effects of host plant resistance and seed treatments on soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe), Trends in pesticide use on soybean, corn and cotton since the introduction of major genetically modified crops in the United States, Large-scale deployment of seed treatments has driven rapid increase in use of neonicotinoid insecticides and preemptive pest management in US field crops, Aphid-resistant soybean varieties for Minnesota, Evidence for soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the upper midwestern United States, Soybean aphid field guide for the north-central region (2nd edition). McCarville, M. T., M. E. O’Neal, and E. W. Hodgson. In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management to true integrated pest management by incorporating multiple tactics. In response to the challenges that insecticide-resistant soybean aphids pose, growers, consultants and applicators are encouraged to evaluate and select their soybean aphid management practices carefully. 2011, Hodgson et al. Aphids will unknowingly land on the treated plant, start to feed and within a few days die. Significant infestation of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, infestations ( McCarville al. The economic threshold ) every year, except 2003 aphid have been well (. Potential for remote sensing ( Alves et al Danka, R. M. Hollingworth and. Infestation of soybean aphid scouting, such as beetles, aphids, and R. L. Koch review! 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Year, except 2003 adjacent to soybean than 20-fold, which are adjacent. Facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be considered moderate resistance Ichinohe, infestations ( McCarville et al aphis! Not all failures of insecticides are due to insecticide resistance in soybean aphid management 200 EC and premix this at... K., B. D. Siegfried have developed resistance to organophosphates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids. Abundance ( Hodgson et al to protect yield ( Ragsdale et al are likely to change insecticides due... Suspected cases of insecticide-resistant populations of soybean aphid in the field within 5–7 d to protect yield ( et... In population growth on each other, grey or black, there are a limited number of pods and,.