Alcuin brought in 'good Latin' because it came from books; it didn't have all the 'problems' that came from a language being spoken as a native tongue. Instead of appointing one language form as the standard, Joanes Leizarrage developed a new language – one that was a combination of the various dialects he observed – that he believed would be understood by the general population (Elkartea 25). Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason. Vol. 2010. Despite being associated with the upper class and being well-educated, most recent reports suggest that this form is practiced by a mere 2% of the population (British Library Board). Leith, Dick. It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. It creates a new pattern of understanding which people could then apply in social settings (Mayr 5). shifting from a circle of peers to public spaces where potential business investors, migrants, policymakers are available). The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. ", "English, of course, developed a standard variety by relatively 'natural' means, over the centuries, out of a kind of consensus, due to various social factors. First, he nominated the central dialect as the standard language of the country as he believed it to be “where the heart of [the] country is, and because it has played a dynamic role in the history of [their] literature” (Elkartea 32). Additionally, we must recognise that language standardisation also ensues in response to increasing trade and capitalism. March 2015, Dudleylm.files.wordpress.com. Milroy, James. by Sally Johnson and Tommaso M. Milani. Fairclough, Norman. British Library Board. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a New versions with new features will be released, and software teams will need to make important decisions. Then a number of theoretical frameworks for the study of communication are discussed: Speech Act theory, Conversation Analysis, and theories concerned with ... Natural language facilitates communication in several other respects, be- The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. As such, standard forms of language can differ at different points in time, even within the same society. Certain sects of the community were opposed to the inclusion of the letter ‘h’. Milroy, James and Lesley Milroy. Standardization. Continuum, 2010, Peter Trudgill, Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th ed. Located in northern Spain, the community saw themselves as autonomous given their diverse historical roots and cultural groups within the country. Societies themselves pick their own standard forms of language, and hence, different societies in different places, and of different cultures, can all pick vastly different (or even somewhat similar) language forms to adhere to. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a society has an existing cultivation of their own language and communicative methods. Accessed 6 March 2017. There are different regional dialects, class dialects, situationalvarieties. Accessed 10 March 2017. "For one important example of the push/pull between divergence and standardization--and between vernacular language and writing--I'll summarize the Literacy Story... about Charlemagne, Alcuin, and Latin. Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. Yale University Press, 2010. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Accessed 1 April 2017. Dudley, Leon. WordPress, 9. Once it has gained general approval, the standard language is rigorously maintained through several means. From a broader perspective, acquiring a standardised language essentially allows for efficient communication and assimilation within a larger social group (e.g. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. The language of Basque is a language form derived from Basque Country. This paper deals with the concepts of language planning and language standardization which are in direct relation with the concept language policy. “Standardization” of Language in ELT Context. Some might feel that the standard form of a society was chosen because it is superior to all other options. A standard language is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. Such networks proved particularly important for innovations requiring collaboration. Furthermore, it creates a sort of ignorance towards other dialects and ways of speaking. Thus, keep in mind that language standardisation is a conscious course of development that produces both good and bad effects. A social history of English. Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. "Standardization is concerned with linguistic forms (corpus planning, i.e. Structural Features of Language and Language Use ... of standardization in technical set-tings. What Is Koineization (or Dialect Mixing)? In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of these are, the informational, the expressive, the directive, the phatic, the aesthetic. This process brings to a language a uniformity and consistent norm and form of writing and speaking, and the promotion of uniformity and consistency usually entails the reduction or elimination of variation. (It is, of course, an open question as to how much, if any, standardization is really required. Updated January 08, 2019. Received Pronunciation. Another quality of a good assessment is standardization. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. These steps or stages in corpus development are also seen as paralleled by policy development, and some analysts enumerate these steps in language policy planning (Eastman 1983:12): . Chinese languages, principal language group of eastern Asia, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. From a social perspective, language standardisation is dependent on how a society or social group chooses to regulate their language, and thus, what is standard to one group is not necessarily the standard to another. It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. We need not thinkof them as being chronological. 3.3 The Process of Language Standardization Standardization is a necessary and vital process in any language. Latin didn't diverge much till the end of the Roman empire in the fifth century, but then as it lived on as the spoken language throughout Europe, it began to diverge somewhat into multiple 'Latins.' Chapter 12 – Evolution of Internet Language, Chapter 2 – Language as a biological adaption, Chapter 3 – Language as a cultural adaptation, Chapter 4 – New quantitative methods to study the evolution of language, Chapter 6 -Typology in Language Universals, Chapter 7 – Natural laboratories for language evolution: Pidgins, Creoles, and Sign Language, Chapter 8 – Language Evolution in the Laboratory, Chapter 9 – Cooperation and Language Evolution, Chapter 13 – From Pre-language Gestures VS Sign Language, Chapter 14 – Parallels Between Language Evolution and Child Language Acquisition, Chapter 15 – Evolution of Nonverbal Communication in Hominids, Chapter 17 – Origins and Evolution of Written Language, Chapter 18 – Language of Artificial Intelligence and IT Evolution, To regulate the use of Basque spelling and lexicon, To contribute to the creation of a language that will be valid for all parts of Basque. Pop quiz: Do you know the difference between an interpreter and a translator?It’s a foundational definition in the language industry, but the two can be easy to mix up. He had stressed on the fact that “Basque should move towards unification, and unification should commence chiefly with matters of form” (Elkartea 36). It was no doubt a sensible decision as the younger generation of writers, speakers, language educators etc. Standardization, it is argued, is necessary in order to facilitate communications, to make possible the establishment of an agreed orthography, and to provide a uniform form for school books. One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). This leads to segregation between those who speak language in the ‘correct’ way and those who do not, labelling them as outsiders (Milroy 535). selection and codification) as well as the social and communicative functions of language (status planning, i.e. Thus, it is crucial to understand that the standard language forms are not universal, and they can still have varieties across different regions. Overall, the whole process aims to create a ‘melting pot’ environment, homogenising a certain culture that comes with the language. S. Rayjashree of the Project on Modernization and Language Development at the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu, for what I … Is the process of development of a standard for written and/or oral language It occurs in a specific manner that depends on the community and the social, historical and geographic aspects involved. Deumert (2004) states that linguistically- oriented approach to language standardization have often concentrated on the identification of the regional and/or social dialects which form the phonological, morphological, ... View Item; JavaScript is disabled for your browser. (domains, timetables, territorial extent, etc.) Software languages will evolve over time just like software applications do. would be the ones to spread the use of this standard language. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. Primarily concerned with the evolution of specific human languages, standardisation can only occur when a socie… Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. We use language and that language is a part of society. Linguists commonly use language variety (or simply variety) as a cover term for any of the overlapping subcategories of a language, including dialect, register, jargon, and … Establishing a standard language ultimately shapes the standard ‘reality’ of the people (Fairclough 203-4). Charlemagne mandated it for his whole empire. The standardisation of language does not only unify the various dialects and sub-dialects of Basque, but also symbolises the unification of a society with diverse, and presumably hazy, historical roots. With increasing literacy rates to match this language demand, citizens could advance from primary to secondary level, manufacturing-related occupations. One point to note is that human language does not necessarily need to divide into different forms. The first is an elaboration of function, where people of higher social standing perceive this language form to be more valuable and important than other variations. Finally, we must be wary of automatically forming relations between the upper class and standard forms of language. Getting It: Language standardisation and the Industrial Revolution. STANDARDIZING? Standardization or standardization is a process that takes place in stages; was not completely finished. Hence, we can see that this division is somewhat “man-made”. Elkartea, Garabide. The British standard held sway throughout the world until very recently, when some other countries began to first accept and then to teach American orthography and lexical choices. Those whom have accepted and are familiarised with the standard language can engage in discourse (Deumert 2), so to generate knowledge about communicative methods and processes. Thus, those who refuse or cannot acquire the standard language properly are marginalised in the society, further widening the language gap. Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as Development in these areas create pressure to establish regularity in other areas, such as currency and language, to facilitate and increase efficiency in communication between countries. Ten years after the proposal was passed, efforts to implement the standard language was assessed and the results were as follow: In overall, it is evident that the majority believed in the good of a standardised language in Basque. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. Variability is a fact of life for almost all languages. Language standardisation, while useful and essential within a society, also has its drawbacks. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Prof Feng’s presentation put this kind of standardization policy in context, explaining that minority language standardization itself follows a standard (and not necessarily responsive) procedure in China. One modern-day example is pop-culture icon Rihanna, and the collective mockery she faced for her song ‘Work’, which uses patois and creole (a language derived from a mix of several languages). In this video, I will introduce the concepts of programming language standardization, and team coding guidelines. Learn more. Language unification, standardization and corpus development imply a sophisticated national or collective effort which has to deal with philosophical, political — and technical — issues. It is important to note that these stages are hypothetical, and can sometimes overlap with one another. John Benjamins Publishing, 2004. Having earned a BA in linguistics some time ago, and having made use of a lot of linguistic information in 23 years as a speech/language therapist, I have to disagree with a number of others who have answered this question. Crystal, David. However, resulting from this diversity was the lack of a cultural or political power to unify the nation (until recently), as so, the language community was divided into dialects, fourteen sub-dialects, and numerous local varieties that each belong to different communities within the country (Elkartea 21). The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. This means that the mean of the attribute becomes zero and the resultant distribution has a unit standard deviation. Therefore, it is evident that it does not represent the consensus of the United Kingdom. It can be argued quite reasonably that there is no real point in standardizing to the extent where, as is often the case in English-speaking communities, children spend many hours learning to spell in an exactly uniform manner, where any spelling mistake is the subject of opprobrium or ridicule, and where derivations from the standard are interpreted as incontrovertible evidence of ignorance.)". Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. They believed that the promotion of the standard was “essential to turn Basque into a modern instrument”, 61% of the 196 Basque writers that were interviewed used the standard language in their writings for they believed in the “need to convert the language into an instrument of culture”. Standardization focuses on the product creation process, operations of businesses, technology in use, and how specific compulsory processes are instituted or carried out. Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. For one, it was the Industrial Revolution – a period of great social, political, and economical change in Great Britain. Routledge, 2000. "The interaction of power, language, and reflections on language inextricably bound up with one another in human history, largely defines language standardization. They further noted: “…it seems appropriate to speak more abstractly of standardisation as an ideology, and a standard language as an idea in the mind rather than a reality—a set of abstract norms to which actual usage may conform to a greater or lesser extent.” (p. 19). For instance, the development of a ‘standard’ form of language creates assumptions about the ‘correct’ way to use language, which is then understood to be ‘common-sense’ and common knowledge. What is language standardisation? In addition, standard languages are also discursive projects, and standardization processes are typically accompanied by the development of specific discourse practices. “Political correctness’: The politics of culture and language.” Discourse &. Following, the society must then express a desire for uniformity by filtering out any irregularities and establishing a consistent communication system between individuals. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. One example of standardization is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)GAAPGAAP, or Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, is a commonly recognized set of rules and procedures designed to govern corporate account… The concern surrounding language variation dates back to the 16th century, where the first attempt for language standardisation was made. Hence in 1919, a Basque Language Academy, Euskaltzaindia, was established with the primary aim of formulating a standardwritten language. Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. The process of standardisation involves both ‘ruler-makers’ and ‘rule-breakers’; the former makes the rules for spelling and pronunciation, in addition to selecting/eliminating the meaning of commonly used words. These discourses emphasize the desirability of uniformity and correctness in language use, the primacy of writing and the very idea of a national language as the only legitimate language of the speech community...", John E. Joseph, 1987; quoted by Darren Paffey in "Globalizing Standard Spanish." In line with the said, the stands of several linguists about the a/s phenomena are presented as the We analyze a set of linguistic features with the aim of depicting the dynamics of intralinguistic and interlinguistic convergence as they relate to the ongoing standardization processes in these languages. Oxford University Press, 2012, Ana Deumert, Language Standardization, and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. standardization definition: 1. the process of making things of the same type all have the same basic features: 2. the process…. The goal of standardization is to ensure uniformity to certain practices within the industry. Indeed, the process of standardisation is an on-goingone,and a whole range of forces are at work. A century later, Manuel Larramendi wrote the first Basque grammar and a dictionary by selecting words from every dialect to be included and recognised (Elkartea 25). But when Charlemagne conquered his huge kingdom in 800, he brought in Alcuin from England. Authority In Language. Thus, we should remember that language standardisation is a process aimed at creating one standard, cohesive language in a society, although (due to the dynamic nature of society) it generally does not achieve this goal. Rather, this division is caused by external social, geographical, and cultural factors (Milroy 541). If a language form is used by the upper class, society automatically esteems it over other forms and views it as the supreme option, even though it does not necessarily allow us to communicate or express ourselves better than other forms. Unsurprisingly, literacy is still highly regarded today as the leading institutional marker for a nation’s development. This essentially re-emphasises that language standardisation is a process, not an end-result. The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. The term re-standardization refers to the ways in which a language may be reshaped by its speakers and writers. Secondly, the language then gains prestige within the society for being associated with those of high social status. Codification:. Unaware of the existence of such slang, fans and music critics alike were quick to deem the song complete ‘gibberish’, despite its lyrics possessing proper meaning and semantics (Thomas). James and Lesley Milroy expressed that language standardisation does not symbolise an actual end-product, but rather, a significant process with no completion. Oure language is also so dyuerse in it selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid in som other contre of the same lond (Lydgate, 1530) And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [ far ] from that whiche was vsed and spoken whan I … In sociolinguistics, language variety—also called lect—is a general term for any distinctive form of a language or linguistic expression. British Library, n.d.. http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/find-out-more/received-pronunciation/. Subsequently, where language standardisation found to be delayed, industrialisation came into play (Dudley 1). The term standardization is generally used within linguistics to refer to the process of bringing about a standard language. Selection. Although there is a link between social standing and standard language, in that the upper class can influence the selection of language form (as enunciated in previous sections), one does not always translate into the other. The Basque case study is significant not only for the fact that it is relatively recent but that it also reflects Milroy & Milroy’s conception that a language standard is not an end-product to be achieved, but rather, it is a process of development that the society embarks on. Language educators were also deeply motivated to teach the standard Basque. Therefore, language standardisation is never stagnant or complete, but will continue revising itself as long as the language is still in use. The growth in industrial technologies signified a great deal of cooperation between individuals of different skillsets, and effective collaboration could only occur when both parties speak and write the same standard language. LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION HOW AND WHY Admilson F. S. Silva Luiz de Castro 2. creating a type-able Unicode). Some features of this site may not work without it. Although standardising language may improve efficiency for the general population, there will be some who fall short of this new-found utility. Formulation, Codification, Elaboration, and Implementation. Modern trends for standardization Current orthography represents two major centers of standardization: British and American English. Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. However, as the use of ‘h’ were valued by the northern Basque writers and speakers, Mitxelena saw the importance of its inclusion in the standard language. Particularly the older, conservative delegates believed it to be a pointless addition of an alphabet that could not be pronounced (Elkartea 34). Hence, the dispersal of a language must be credited to its respective speakers—people, and their practices and customs—and not the core of language itself. With every generation, new words are constantly invented and introduced into the language lexicon, which may then be taught to the next generation (Crystal 132). John Benjamins, 2004. Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. Standardization in language, as distinct from script or notation, comea out of these two features, variation in speech and association of language with overtones of social and personal origins. language standardization, ther efore, is less about language itself as function and structure, than it is about ideologies and hegemonies about lang uage, or what is called “language ideology”. The latter, in contrast, are then stigmatized for using non-standard dialects. Critics. For many newer countries, though, the development of a standard language has had to take place fairly rapidly, and government intervention has therefore been necessary. To conclude, as societies grow and evolve over the years, its language form will face similar changes. Language varieties gain prestige when its speakers possess high social standing. Among, 431 publications made between 1967 and 1977, only 3.3% of books published in 1967 had incorporated the new rules of spelling, declined and conjugated forms. Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. Such system is then regarded as the absolute legitimate and “correct” standard of language, and hence, is esteemed above everyday speakers of the language. Rihanna’s ‘Work’ Lyrics Use Creole & Patois, Totally Confusing Music. Standardization is another scaling technique where the values are centered around the mean with a unit standard deviation. Fast-forwarding to the nineteenth century, the people pf Basque expressed an increasing desire to preserve the nation’s language culture with all its diversities. For instance, the use of double negatives – ‘that won’t do you no good’ – is deemed confusing, redundant and incorrect by the masses. Standardization of language course is considered very important in the process of language planning. A Little Book of Language. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. Deumert, Ana. Language standardisation and language change: The dynamics of Cape Dutch. The basic objectives of the academy were: In a further effort to standardise the language of the country, Koldo Mitxelena proposed a set of guidelines for the new language standard in 1968. 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